The knee is the most complex joint in the body and is made up of a combination of bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and other soft tissue. Knees are the largest, heaviest, and strongest joints in the body, providing mobility and support to carry almost half your body's weight.
The Knee Bones
The knee joint includes three bones: the top of the leg bone (the tibia) and the knee cap (the patella), and the end of the thigh bone (the femur).
Your thighbone (femur) and shinbone (tibia) meet at the knee joint. The rounded ends of the femur that form the top of the knee are called the femoral condyles. The top of the tibia that makes up the bottom of the knee is called the tibial plateau. The sides of the knee are referred to as the lateral (outer) side and the medial (inner) side.
Muscles, Ligaments and Cartilage
The femur and tibia are connected by a complex set of muscles and ligaments that contain the kneecap (patella) on the front side. These ligaments and muscles control the knee’s range of motion. The knee joint is cushioned by articular cartilage that covers the ends of the femur and tibia, helping them to articulate (move) against each other. In a knee joint that has osteoarthritis, the cartilage wears down and bone begins to rub on bone.
Also between the two bones lie two crescent-shaped pieces of cartilage called menisci. The menisci provide further cushioning for the joint, as well as a smooth, lubricated surface for the bones to slide against during movement, that also act as shock absorbers between the bones. They also provide a more pocket-like surface on the top of the tibia for the femur to sit in, thus increasing stability.
The muscles of your leg, along with these components of your knee, work together to manage the stress your knee receives as you walk, run, and jump.
The ADVANCE® Knee System offers significant improvements over contemporary designs by restoring the normal patello-femoral and tibio-femoral articulation and using anatomically shaped femoral implants to increase range of motion. In short, the ADVANCE® Double-High and Medial-Pivot Knees combine science and experience to bring natural kinematics (motion) and stability to your total knee.